On 3 July 2013, a coalition led by the Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi removed the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi, from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution, as a conscious response to Egyptian protesters who demanded the end of Morsi’s administration and the initiation of early presidential elections. The move came after four days widespread national protests against the administration and an ultimatum by the military for the government to “resolve its differences” with opponents within 48 hours or face the implementation of a military “road map” for reforms. The coalition declared Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour as the interim president of Egypt. Morsi was put under house arrest and several Muslim Brotherhood leaders were arrested. The announcement was followed by demonstrations and clashes between supporters and opponents of the move throughout Egypt. The announcement was followed by a statement in support of the military’s action by the Grand Sheikh of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, the Coptic Orthodox Pope Tawadros II as well as opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei. There were mixed international reactions to the events. Most Arab leaders were generally supportive or neutral, with the exception of Qatar and Tunisia who strongly condemned the military’s actions. Other states either condemned or expressed concern over the removal of Morsi; there was also a perceived measured response from the United States. Due to the regulations of the African Union regarding the interruption of constitutional rule by a member state, Egypt was suspended from that union. There has also been debate in the media regarding the labeling of these events. It has been variously described by most Western nations as a coup or as a revolution by proponents. Ensuing protests in favour of Morsi were violently suppressed with the dispersal of pro-Morsi sit-ins on 14 August 2013, amid ongoing unrest.


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